Scalable deposition of high-efficiency perovskite solar cells by spray-coating

Spray-deposition is a low-cost, roll-to-roll compatible technique that could potentially replace spin-coating for the deposition of highly efficient perovskite solar cells. Here, perovskite active layers were fabricated in air using an ultrasonic spray system and compared with equivalent spin-coated films. A chlorine-containing perovskite ink with a wide processing window coupled with an antisolvent extraction resulted in perovskite films with relatively rougher surfaces than those spin-coated. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 17.3% was achieved with an average of 16.3% from 24 devices. Despite observing differences in film roughness and structure, the performance of sprayed perovskite solar cells was comparable to that of the spin-coated cells processed in an inert atmosphere, showing the versatility of perovskite processing.