Self-limiting growth of two-dimensional palladium between graphene oxide layers

© 2019 American Chemical Society. The ability of different materials to display self-limiting growth has recently attracted an enormous amount of attention because of the importance of nanoscale materials in applications for catalysis, energy conversion, (opto)electronics, and so forth. Here, we show that the electrochemical deposition of palladium (Pd) between graphene oxide (GO) sheets result in the self-limiting growth of 5-nm-thick Pd nanosheets. The self-limiting growth is found to be a consequence of the strong interaction of Pd with the confining GO sheets, which results in the bulk growth of Pd being energetically unfavorable for larger thicknesses. Furthermore, we have successfully carried out liquid exfoliation of the resulting Pd-GO laminates to isolate Pd nanosheets and have demonstrated their high efficiency in continuous flow catalysis and electrocatalysis.