Shortest path and vehicle trajectory aided map-matching for low frequency GPS data
2015-07-09T14:57:10Z (GMT) by
Map-matching algorithms that utilise road segment connectivity along with other data (i.e. position, speed and heading) in the process of map-matching are normally suitable for high frequency (1 Hz or higher) positioning data from GPS. While applying such map-matching algorithms to low frequency data (such as data from a fleet of private cars, buses or light duty vehicles or smartphones), the performance of these algorithms reduces to in the region of 70% in terms of correct link identification, especially in urban and sub-urban road networks. This level of performance may be insufficient for some real-time Intelligent Transport System (ITS) applications and services such as estimating link travel time and speed from low frequency GPS data. Therefore, this paper develops a new weight-based shortest path and vehicle trajectory aided map-matching (stMM) algorithm that enhances the map-matching of low frequency positioning data on a road map. The well-known A⁄ search algorithm is employed to derive the shortest path between two points while taking into account both link connectivity and turn restrictions at junctions. In the developed stMM algorithm, two additional weights related to the shortest path and vehicle trajectory are considered: one shortest path-based weight is related to the distance along the shortest path and the distance along the vehicle trajectory, while the other is associated with the heading difference of the vehicle trajectory. The developed stMM algorithm is tested using a series of real-world datasets of varying frequencies (i.e. 1 s, 5 s, 30 s, 60 s sampling intervals). A high-accuracy integrated navigation system (a high-grade inertial navigation system and a carrier-phase GPS receiver) is used to measure the accuracy of the developed algorithm. The results suggest that the algorithm identifies 98.9% of the links correctly for every 30 s GPS data. Omitting the information from the shortest path and vehicle trajectory, the accuracy of the algorithm reduces to about 73% in terms of correct link identification. The algorithm can process on average 50 positioning fixes per second making it suitable for real-time ITS applications and services.