Solutions of word equations over partially commutative structures

© Volker Diekert, Artur Jez, and Manfred Kufleitner. We give NSPACE(n log n) algorithms solving the following decision problems. Satisfiability: Is the given equation over a free partially commutative monoid with involution (resp. a free partially commutative group) solvable? Finiteness: Are there only finitely many solutions of such an equation? PSPACE algorithms with worse complexities for the first problem are known, but so far, a PSPACE algorithm for the second problem was out of reach. Our results are much stronger: Given such an equation, its solutions form an EDT0L language effectively representable in NSPACE(n log n). In particular, we give an effective description of the set of all solutions for equations with constraints in free partially commutative monoids and groups.