Supervisory model predictive control of building integrated renewable and low carbon energy systems
2012-03-23T12:52:48Z (GMT) by
To reduce fossil fuel consumption and carbon emission in the building sector, renewable and low carbon energy technologies are integrated in building energy systems to supply all or part of the building energy demand. In this research, an optimal supervisory controller is designed to optimize the operational cost and the CO2 emission of the integrated energy systems. For this purpose, the building energy system is defined and its boundary, components (subsystems), inputs and outputs are identified. Then a mathematical model of the components is obtained. For mathematical modelling of the energy system, a unified modelling method is used. With this method, many different building energy systems can be modelled uniformly. Two approaches are used; multi-period optimization and hybrid model predictive control. In both approaches the optimization problem is deterministic, so that at each time step the energy consumption of the building, and the available renewable energy are perfectly predicted for the prediction horizon. The controller is simulated in three different applications. In the first application the controller is used for a system consisting of a micro-combined heat and power system with an auxiliary boiler and a hot water storage tank. In this application the controller reduces the operational cost and CO2 emission by 7.31 percent and 5.19 percent respectively, with respect to the heat led operation. In the second application the controller is used to control a farm electrification system consisting of PV panels, a diesel generator and a battery bank. In this application the operational cost with respect to the common load following strategy is reduced by 3.8 percent. In the third application the controller is used to control a hybrid off-grid power system consisting of PV panels, a battery bank, an electrolyzer, a hydrogen storage tank and a fuel cell. In this application the controller maximizes the total stored energies in the battery bank and the hydrogen storage tank.