Supplementary information files for 'Acoustic emission generated by glass beads in compression and shearing'

2019-10-01T10:43:05Z (GMT) by Alister Smith Neil Dixon
Supplementary information files for 'Acoustic emission generated by glass beads in compression and shearing'

Abstract:
Acoustic emission (AE) monitoring offers the potential to sense particle-scale interactions that lead to macro-scale responses of granular materials. This paper presents results from a programme of drained triaxial tests performed on densely packed glass beads to establish quantitative interpretation of AE during isotropic compression, shearing and associated stick–slip events. Relationships have been quantified between: AE and boundary work (i.e. AE generated per Joule) for a unit volume of glass beads under isotropic compression and shear; AE and shear displacement rate; and the amplitude of deviator stress cycles and AE activity during stick–slip events. In shear, AE generation increased with shear strain and reached peak values that were maintained from volume minimum (i.e. the transition from contractive to dilative behaviour) to peak dilatancy, whereupon AE generation gradually reduced and then remained around a constant mean value with further increments of shear strain. In each stick–slip event, AE activity increased during shear strength mobilisation, particle climbing and dilation, and then reduced with the subsequent deviator stress drop during particle sliding and contraction. The amplitude of these cycles in AE activity were governed by the amplitude of deviator stress cycles during stick–slip events, which were also proportional to the imposed stress level and inversely proportional to particle size.