The applicability of Technology Acceptance Model 3 in an education management information system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2019-03-14T11:14:13Z (GMT) by
This study aims to explore the applicability of Technology Acceptance Model 3 in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in an educational context. Therefore, this study investigates the antecedents, moderators, and socio-demographic variables relating to Technology Acceptance Model 3, and what their effect is on technological acceptance. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has witnessed rapid growth with the adoption of information systems that have enhanced its services. The Noor system is considered to be one of the largest adopted information systems in the Middle East (Abu-Ghazaleh, 2012). It is an education management information system that manages information and educational data; it also serves 65 stakeholders and more than ten million users. Information systems have previously been investigated in terms of their success, satisfaction, acceptance, and system usage. Some literature suggests that understanding individual acceptance and use of information technology is among the most mature streams of information systems research (Benbasat and Barki, 2007; Hirschheim, 2007; Mardiana et al., 2015; Rondan-Cataluña et al., 2015). Thus, studying the Noor system using Technology Acceptance Model 3 should promote usage and explore factors that hinder its usage. It is nevertheless clear that the implementation process presented its own challenges. The study was based in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A total of 730,180 emails were sent, and 10,711 responses were received. Therefore, the overall response rate was 1.47 percent. The sample comprised both male and female users from three groups: 1,655 teachers (15.5%); 3,666 students (34.2%); and 5,390 parents (50.3%). A comprehensive online questionnaire was designed to suit the study using Technology Acceptance Model 3 literature. This were pre-tested, validated, and then uploaded to the Smart Survey online database for data collection. Technology Acceptance Model 3 was adopted to identify factors that determine the use of the Noor system. Previous literature reviews concerning Technology Acceptance Model 3 were used to formulate the hypotheses that governed the relationships between constructs. A hypothetico-deductive method was used to investigate the aim and objectives of this study both under the mandatory and voluntary conditions. The questionnaires had 16 main hypotheses, alongside three extra hypotheses (investigating the effect of socio-demographic variables, and the beta estimates and their effect on H2 and H3), thus bringing the total number of hypotheses for the entire study to 19. The survey was designed to capture information from both Saudi and non-Saudi users of the Noor system. The main data analysis was conducted using structural equation modelling in AMOS: specifically, the maximum likelihood estimate method, and moderation testing. Technology Acceptance Model 3 was found to be appropriate for studying the Noor system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It was found to be applicable to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia when studying the Noor system under both the mandatory and voluntary conditions. Likewise, it was found to be applicable to the non-Saudi from other Middle Eastern countries who used Arabic as their main teaching language. The study also found that Technology Acceptance Model 3 should not only be limited to its traditional moderators, but rather that researchers should explore the possibility of testing and incorporating additional socio-demographics as moderators. Likewise, a Saudi cultural background was found to have a strong effect on Behavioural Intention in using the Noor system, as well as Perceived Usefulness when compared to the non-Saudi from other Middle Eastern countries. Lastly, the study noted the importance of measuring Use Behaviour in Technology Acceptance Model 3 and not ignoring this factor, especially with self-reported usage. The study offers numerous contributions to the literature on Technology Acceptance Model 3, regarding both main relationships and socio-demographic variables. It can thus be concluded that this study should have some impact beyond the borders of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, especially in the Middle East. The findings and recommendations of this study lay a strong groundwork for enacting policy measures, alongside implementation by the government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, to ensure that the Noor system is a success within and beyond the borders of Saudi Arabia.