The role of bus-based Park and Ride in the UK : a temporal and evaluative review

The number of bus-based Park and Ride schemes in the UK has grown substantially over the past 40 years as a result of its encouragement by the Government as a tool to deal with increasing traffic congestion and traffic-related pollution. The aim of this paper is to analyse the degree to which Park and Ride is effective in the contemporary policy context. The authors identify phases of development of Park and Ride since its emergence as a local solution to transport capacity constraints in historic towns. Policy goals are identified against which a review of literature is used to highlight its effectiveness. It is concluded that Park and Ride may increase the distance travelled by its users due to low load factors on dedicated buses, public transport abstraction and trip generation, although it is highlighted that there are areas in which further research is required to clarify its impacts.