Thermal energy storage for low and medium temperature applications using phase change materials – a review

A comprehensive review of phase change materials (PCMs) with phase transition temperatures between 0 and 250 °C is presented. From that review, organic compounds and salt hydrates seem more promising below 100 °C and eutectic mixtures from 100 to 250 °C. Practical indirect heat exchanger designs for latent heat storage systems were also assessed and feasible heat enhancement mechanisms reviewed. The focus on this temperature range is due to potential CO2 emissions reduction able to be achieved replacing conventional heating and cooling applications in the domestic, commercial and public administration sectors, which represented around a quarter of the UK’s final energy consumption in 2015.