Thermo-migration behavior of SAC305 lead-free solder reinforced with fullerene nanoparticles

In this work, SAC305 lead-free solder reinforced with 0.1 wt. % fullerene nanoparticles was prepared using a powder metallurgy method. A lab-made setup and a corresponding Cu/solder/Cu sample for thermo-migration (TM) test were designed and implemented. The feasibility of this setup for TM stressing was further verified with experimental and simulation methods; a temperature gradient in a solder seam was calculated as 1070 K/cm. Microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of both plain and composite solder alloys were then studied under the condition of TM stressing. It was shown that compared to unreinforced SAC305 solder, the process of diffusion of Cu atoms in the composite solder seam was remarkably suppressed. After the TM test for 600 h, Cu/solder interfaces in the composite solder seam were more stable and the inner structure remained more intact. Moreover, the addition of fullerene reinforcement can considerably affect a distribution of Cu6Sn5 formed as a result of dissolution of Cu atoms during the TM test. Hardness data across the solder seam were also found notably different because of the elemental redistribution caused by TM.