Transient analysis of tyre friction generation using a brush model with interconnected viscoelastic bristles

An analysis of the mechanism of tyre contact force generation under transient conditions is presented. For this purpose, two different versions of a brush model are used, both with inertial and viscoelastic properties. The first model consists of independent bristles, while the second, with a more realistic scenario, introduces viscoelastic circumferential connections between the sequential bristles, which affect the lateral degrees of freedom. Friction between the tyre and the ground follows an experimentally verified stick-slip law. For the model with independent bristles, the state of each bristle at any instant of time depends only on the state of the same bristle at a previous time step. In the second model, the instantaneous state depends on the state of the same bristle at the preceding time step, as well as on the state of the two adjacent bristles at the same time. Simulation results reveal the differences between the two models and most importantly show how transient friction force generation may differ substantially from steady state predictions. The findings suggest that transient tyre behaviour should not be attributed solely to the contributions of the flexible belt and carcass. On the contrary, the observed transience in the neighbourhood of the contact patch should also be taken into account.