Uncertainty due to speckle noise in laser vibrometry
2010-11-15T08:40:42Z (GMT) by
This thesis presents fundamental research in the field of laser vibrometry for the application to vibration measurements. A key concern for laser vibrometry is the effect of laser speckle which appears when a coherent laser beam scatters from an optically rough surface. The laser vibrometer is sensitive to changes in laser speckle which result from surface motions not in the direction of the incident beam. This adds speckle noise to the vibrometer output which can be indistinguishable from the genuine surface vibrations. This has been termed ‘pseudo-vibration’ and requires careful data interpretation by the vibration engineer. This research has discovered that measurements from smooth surfaces, even when no identifiable speckle pattern is generated, can produce noise and therefore reference to speckle noise, in such circumstances, is inappropriate. This thesis has, therefore, adopted the more general term of pseudo-vibration to include noise generated from any surface roughness or treatment, i.e. including but not limited to speckle noise. This thesis develops and implements novel experimental methods to quantify pseudovibration sensitivities (transverse, tilt and rotation sensitivity) with attention focussed on commercially available laser vibrometers and consideration is given to a range of surface roughnesses and treatments. It investigates, experimentally, the fundamental behaviour of speckles and attempts to formulate, for the first time, a relationship between changes in intensity to pseudo-vibration sensitivity levels. The thesis also develops and implements models for computational simulation of pseudo-vibrations using the fundamental behaviour of speckles. The combination of experimentation and simulation improves current understanding of the pseudo-vibration mechanisms and provides the vibration engineer with a valuable resource to improve data interpretation. Two experimental methods of quantifying pseudo-vibration sensitivity are developed and successfully applied in the evaluation of transverse, tilt and rotation sensitivity for two models of commercial laser vibrometer. These evaluations cover both single beam (translational vibration measurement) and parallel beam (for angular vibration measurement) modes. The first method presented requires correction of the vibrometer measurement with an independent measurement of genuine velocity to produce an iii apparent velocity dominated by the required noise components. The second method requires a differential measurement using two vibrometers to cancel common components such as genuine velocity, leaving only uncorrelated noise from each measurement in the resulting apparent velocity. In each case, a third measurement is required of the surface motion component causing pseudo-vibration and this is used to normalise the apparent velocity. Pseudo-vibration sensitivity is then presented as a map showing the spectral shape of the noise, as a mean and standard deviation of harmonic peaks in the map and as a total rms level across a defined bandwidth. The simulations employ a novel and effective approach to modelling speckle evolution. Transverse and tilt sensitivity are predicted for the first time and are verified by the experimental study. They provide the vibration engineer with the potential to estimate pseudo-vibrations using a simple piece of software. The laser beam spot diameter has a large influence on the pseudo-vibration sensitivity. Transverse sensitivity has been quantified as around 0.03% and 0.01% (per order) of the transverse velocity of the surface for beam spot diameters of 100 μm and 600 μm respectively. Larger beam spots have been shown to significantly reduce transverse sensitivity and measurements from smoother surfaces have also shown a reduced level of transverse sensitivity. Tilt sensitivity has been quantified at about 0.1 μms-1/degs-1 and 0.3 μms-1/degs-1 (per order) of angular velocity of the surface for beam spot diameters of 100 μm and 600 μm respectively. Smaller beam spot diameters significantly reduce tilt sensitivity. The surface roughness or treatment has been shown to have little effect on the level of tilt sensitivity. Rotation sensitivity has been quantified at approximately 0.6 μms- 1/rads-1 and 1.9μms-1/rads-1 (per order) of rotation velocity of the rotor for 90 μm and 520 μm. Smaller beam spot diameters have shown a significant reduction in rotation sensitivity and measurements on smoother surfaces have shown a reduced rotation sensitivity. Focussing the laser beam approximately on the rotation axis has also shown a significant reduction in rotation sensitivity. Parallel beam rotation sensitivity has been quantified at 0.016 degs-1/rads-1 and it is demonstrated that this can adequately be estimated using the single beam rotation sensitivity.