Uncertainty in energy yield estimation based on C-Si module roundrobin results.

Results of the European FP7 Sophia project roundrobin of c-Si module power measurements at STC and low irradiance and temperature coefficients were used to calculate annual energy yield at four sites. The deviation in the estimates solely due to the different measurement results is reported, neglecting the uncertainty in the meteorological data and losses unrelated to the performed measurements. While minimising the deviation in Pmax measurements remains the key challenge, the low irradiance and temperature coefficient contributions are shown to be significant. Propagating the measurement deviation in c-Si module measurements would suggest that expanded uncertainty in energy yield due to module characterization alone can be as high as ±3-4%.