Water consumption and factors influencing hydration status
2012-12-04T08:49:16Z (GMT) by
Objectives. This study aimed to provide data on water intake from food and beverages of free-living adults in their natural environment, and investigate how this is affected by physiological, psychological, social and environmental factors. A further aim was to monitor the hydration status of free-living adults and relate this data to water intake. Methods The consumption of all food and beverages was recorded in a diary over three consecutive days by 80 healthy adults (40 males, 40 females), aged 18 to 65 years, who were instructed to continue their normal eating and drinking habits and lifestyles throughout the study. The data was analysed to determine total daily water intake and how this was affected by time of day, day of the week, presence of others, location of consumption, age and subjects mood. A further 20 healthy subjects (10 males, 10 females) repeated these procedures but also had blood samples taken for monitoring of blood indices (haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, sodium concentration, and potassium concentration) and provided urine samples for the measurement of urine indices (volume, colour, specific gravity, osmolality and sodium, potassium, chloride, and creatinine concentrations). Results The total volume of water consumed by the 80 subjects was 2229 882 ml/day (mean standard deviation). Females tended to consume more water than males (2402 827 ml/day vs 2056 911 ml/day, P = 0.079). Similar volumes were consumed by the additional 20 subjects in the hydration status study. Females appeared euhydrated; males appeared mild dehydrated, having a higher morning and 24-hour urine specific gravity and osmolality than females (P < 0.05, respectively). Conclusions The mean daily total volume of water consumed by females in this study was greater than the adequate intake value set by the European Food Safety Authority; for males it was lower. Females were euhydrated during the study but males tended to be mild dehydrated, reflecting their comparative water intakes.