Structure-function relationship of heart valves in health and disease
chapterposted on 01.03.2019, 14:40 by Sotiris Korossis
The heart valves allow unidirectional and unobstructed passage of blood without regurgitation, trauma to blood elements, thromboembolism, and excessive stress concentrations in the leaflet and supporting tissue. In order to achieve this, the heart valves rely of their unique macroscale anatomy, histoarchitecture and ultrastructural features that allow them to accommodate repetitive changes in shape and dimension throughout the cardiac cycle. This chapter is focused on the structure-function relationship of the heart valves, with particular focus on the aortic and mitral valves, discussing how the biochemical, histoarchitectural and anatomical features influence valvular function during the cardiac cycle and how valvular function dictates valvular architecture and ECM constitution. The chapter examines the structure-function relationship of valvular tissue by correlating its microscale histoarchitecture and biochemical constitution to its mesoscale biomechanics and macroscale function during the cardiac cycle. Moreover, the chapter examines the influence of pathological alterations on the histoarchitectural and biochemical characteristics of the valves on their biomechanical behavior.
This work was supported by the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the EU 7th Framework Programme FP7/2007–2013/ under the REA Grant Agreement Number 317512, and the German Research Foundation through the Cluster of Excellence REBIRTH (From Regenerative Biology to Reconstructive Therapy; EXC 62). The author is also funded by the German Centre for Lung Research (DZL) BREATH (Biomedical Research in End-stage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover) (DZL: 82DZL00201), and the German Research Foundation through a Project Grant (348028075).
- Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering