Simulation of high-resolution domestic electricity demand based on a building occupancy model and its applicability to the study of demand side management

Alongside the well understood need to reduce overall electricity consumption, there is an increasing need to provide demand response: the ability to time shift electrical demand in accordance with available low-carbon generation including wind, marine and solar power. Many domestic loads can readily be employed to provide time shifting demand response in the range of minutes to hours and this concept is already the subject of numerous demonstrations worldwide. The modelling presented in this paper provides a basis for the quantification of the availability and impact of demand response in the domestic sector. In particular, this paper describes the development of a domestic electricity demand model capable of providing data with a one-minute time resolution and with which the operation of demand response may be assessed. The electricity demand model is constructed at the level of individual household appliances and their usage is based on surveyed time-use data. This provides for appropriate temporal diversity of energy use between simulated dwellings. Occupancy data allows the correlated usage of appliances to be represented within an actively occupied dwelling, as well as representing the sharing of appliances, such as lighting, in dwellings with multiple occupants. This paper summarises previously developed occupancy and lighting models and explains how the lighting model can be extended to create an integrated appliance model.