Sustainable use and implementation of bone char as a technology for arsenic and fluoride removal
Arsenic and fluoride are key issues in the global water challenge as they exist above the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended limits of 0.010 mg/L and 1.5 mg/L, respectively, in the natural drinking water sources of many regions of the world. The suitability of using several types of bone char as a sustainable removal technology for arsenic and fluoride in remote areas of developing countries is evaluated. The results suggest that 500˚C is the ideal charring temperature for fish bone char based on removal capacity and aesthetic concerns, such as water discoloration and smell, and that there is no significant competition found when removing fluoride and arsenic simultaneously. Current water projects often fail after one to three years for a variety of reasons. Therefore, implementation strategies will also be discussed.
- Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering
- Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC)