File(s) under permanent embargo

Reason: This item is currently closed access.

The effect of breakfast on appetite regulation, energy balance and exercise performance

conference contribution
posted on 07.04.2016, 08:32 by David Clayton, Lewis James
The belief that breakfast is the most important meal of day has been derived from cross-sectional studies that have associated breakfast consumption with a lower BMI. This suggests that breakfast omission either leads to an increase in energy intake or a reduction in energy expenditure over the remainder of the day, resulting in a state of positive energy balance. However, observational studies do not imply causality. A number of intervention studies have been conducted, enabling more precise determination of breakfast manipulation on indices of energy balance. This review will examine the results from these studies in adults, attempting to identify causal links between breakfast and energy balance, as well as determining whether consumption of breakfast influences exercise performance. Despite the associations in the literature, intervention studies have generally found a reduction in total daily energy intake when breakfast is omitted from the daily meal pattern. Moreover, whilst consumption of breakfast supresses appetite during the morning, this effect appears to be transient as the first meal consumed after breakfast seems to offset appetite to a similar extent, independent of breakfast. Whether breakfast affects energy expenditure is less clear. Whilst breakfast does not seem to affect basal metabolism, breakfast omission may reduce free-living physical activity and endurance exercise performance throughout the day. In conclusion, the available research suggests breakfast omission may influence energy expenditure more strongly than energy intake. Longer term intervention studies are required to confirm this relationship, and determine the impact of these variables on weight management.

Funding

This research was supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Diet, Lifestyle & Physical Activity Biomedical Research Unit based at University Hospitals of Leicester and Loughborough University.

History

School

  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

Published in

Proceedings of the Nutrition Society

Pages

1 - 9

Citation

CLAYTON, D.J. and JAMES, L.J., 2015. The effect of breakfast on appetite regulation, energy balance and exercise performance. IN: 2015 Nutrition Society Summer Meeting, Nottingham, Great Britain, 6-9 July 2015, DOI: 10.1017/S0029665115004243.

Publisher

Cambridge University Press (© the authors)

Version

VoR (Version of Record)

Publisher statement

This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Publication date

2015

ISSN

0029-6651

eISSN

1475-2719

Language

en

Exports

Logo branding

Exports