Loughborough University
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A framework for designing end use products for direct manufacturing using additive manufacturing technologies

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conference contribution
posted on 2017-06-07, 10:02 authored by Zicheng Zhu, Patrick PradelPatrick Pradel, Richard Bibb, James Moultrie
Additive Manufacturing (AM) has enjoyed rapid development over the past decade and improved process capability brings attractive potentials for direct manufacturing of end use components and products. This opens a new avenue for designers to design a much wider variety of products in a more time and cost effective way. A new research field – design for AM – is emerging, exploring new design principles, methods and rules. However, the vast majority of the methods and rules presented to date focus on the feature level, which are specifically applied at the detail design stage to ensure the manufacturability of the features for a given AM process. This does not enable designers to fully benefit from unique AM capabilities. Therefore, this paper proposes a framework that holistically considers design freedoms, AM advantages and limitations for designing end use products, providing guidance throughout process selection and different design stages. The major considerations in the design process are addressed, showing effective ways of making use of AM. Process characteristics, design rules and implications of using AM on product shape, quality and economic viability are also described.


This research is funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council, grant number EP/N005953/1, under the Manufacturing the Future theme.



  • Design

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International Conference on Engineering Design 2017


ZHU, Z. ... et al, 2017. A framework for designing end use products for direct manufacturing using additive manufacturing technologies. IN: Maier, A. ... et al (eds). Proceedings of the 21st International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED17), Vol 5: Design for X, Design to X, Vancouver, Canada, 21st-25th August 2017, pp. 327-336.


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This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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