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Addressing Multi-Stage Attacks Using Expert Knowledge and Contextual Information - camera ready.pdf (1.16 MB)

Addressing multi-stage attacks using expert knowledge and contextual information

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conference contribution
posted on 2019-02-04, 14:02 authored by Francisco J. Aparicio-Navarro, Timothy Chadza, Kostas KyriakopoulosKostas Kyriakopoulos, Ibrahim Ghafir, Sangarapillai LambotharanSangarapillai Lambotharan, Basil AsSadhan
New challenges in the cyber-threat domain are driven by tactical and meticulously designed Multi-Stage Attacks (MSAs). Current state-of-the-art (SOTA) Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) are developed to detect individual attacks through the use of signatures or identifying manifested anomalies in the network environment. However, an MSA differs from traditional one-off network attacks as it requires a set of sequential stages, whereby each stage may not be malicious when manifested individually, therefore, potentially be underestimated by current IDSs. This work proposes a new approach towards addressing this challenging type of cyber-attacks by employing external sources of information, beyond the conventional use of signatures and monitored network data. In particular, both expert knowledge and contextual information in the form of Pattern-of-Life (PoL) of the network are shown to be influential in giving an advantage against SOTA techniques. We compare our proposed anomaly-based IDS, based on decision making powered by the Dempster-Shafer (D-S) Theory and Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs), against Snort, one of the most widely deployed IDS in the world. Our results verify that the use of contextual information improves the efficiency of our IDS by enhancing the Detection Rate (DR) of MSAs by almost 50%.


This work has been supported by the Gulf Science, Innovation and Knowledge Economy Programme of the UK Government under UK-Gulf Institutional Link grant IL 279339985.



  • Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering

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22nd Conference on Innovation in Clouds, Internet and Networks (ICIN 2019)


APARICIO-NAVARRO, F.J. ... et al., 2019. Addressing multi-stage attacks using expert knowledge and contextual information. Presented at the 22nd Conference on Innovation in Clouds, Internet and Networks (ICIN 2019), Paris, 19-21 February, pp.188-194.




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