Loughborough University
Noor.pdf (258.91 kB)
Download file

An end to open defecation: process, cost, motivation and sustainability

Download (258.91 kB)
conference contribution
posted on 2018-02-12, 15:08 authored by Tawheed R. Noor, Sonia Ashrafee
Since 2000, Village Education Resource Centre (VERC) and WaterAid Bangladesh (WAB) have in partnership been pioneering a Community Led Total Sanitation Approach (CLTS), leading to an end to open defecation in over 100 villages in Bangladesh and not exclusively reliant on addressing traditional indicators such as latrine coverage and hygiene behaviour change. To explore the process, cost, motivational and sustainability factors which could support a wider application of this approach, a study was initiated through collaboration between Sophie Allan, a Master’s student at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and Tawheed Reza Noor of WAB. WAB and VERC then undertook additional research activities including investigation of local government perceptions. Findings highlighted the extremely low cost of the latrines built, the importance placed upon prestige and practical need over health, the self-determined progression of households up the sanitation ladder and the enthusiastic support of local government officials.



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

Research Unit

  • Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC)

Published in

WEDC Conference


NOOR, T.R. and ASHRAFEE, S., 2004. An end to open defecation: process, cost, motivation and sustainability. IN: Godfrey, S. (ed). People-centred approaches to water and environmental sanitation: Proceedings of the 30th WEDC International Conference, Vientiane, Laos, 25-29 October 2004, pp. 120-123.


© WEDC, Loughborough University


  • VoR (Version of Record)

Publisher statement

This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Publication date



This is a conference paper.

Other identifier



  • en

Usage metrics


No categories selected