Tripathy-2405.pdf (298.42 kB)
Download file

Building ODF communities through effective collaboration with government and using accountable methods in communities

Download (298.42 kB)
conference contribution
posted on 12.02.2018, 15:11 by Anjali Tripathy
Sanitation is has always been an agenda since very beginning after Independence In 1986 that the government launched the Central Rural Sanitation Program (CRSP), the first nationwide sanitation program. Several other large sanitation programs have been launched since then such as the Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA) in rural India, In 2001 the CRSP was overhauled with the introduction of the Total Sanitation Campaign (TSC). In 2007 TSC was renamed Nirmal Bharat Abhiyan (NBA). NBA envisages facilitating individual household toilets to the Below Poverty Line and Identified Above Poverty Line households and providing school and community level sanitation. Now in 2014 the program is again renamed and revised with benefits as Swach Bharat Bhayian with ambition to make India ODF by 2019, but still the major focus on ground is on construction of toilets and it’s counting then making ODF communities. Usage of toilets still remain an issue. This paper narrates the experience of development organization on how to collaborate towards making ODF communities beyond construction.



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

Research Unit

  • Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC)

Published in

WEDC Conference


TRIPATHY, A., 2016. Building ODF communities through effective collaboration with government and using accountable methods in communities. IN: Shaw, R.J. (ed). Ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: Proceedings of the 39th WEDC International Conference, Kumasi, Ghana, 11-15 July 2016, Briefing paper 2405, 6pp.


© WEDC, Loughborough University


VoR (Version of Record)

Publisher statement

This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at:

Publication date



This is a conference paper.

Other identifier




Usage metrics