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Comparison of time-area requirements of parcel lockers vs. home delivery: a cyber-physical system of last mile delivery

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conference contribution
posted on 2022-04-29, 08:31 authored by Maren Schnieder, Andrew WestAndrew West
Last mile delivery is seen as the most expensive part of the supply chain, and causes significant external effects (e.g. pollution, land use, noise). Therefore, much research has been devoted to finding alternative vehicles to deliver parcels such as drones and cargo bicycles and to finding alternative delivery locations such as parcel lockers. Parcel lockers are seen in most simulation studies as the most sustainable option. However, most of these studies ignore that customers might drive a car to pick up parcels. Also, parcel lockers require space 24/7 whereas a delivery van only requires a parking space for a few minutes while the parcel is handed over. However, during home delivery more space is required for the delivery van while driving due to the increased vehicle kilometer traveled compared with delivery to parcel lockers. The contribution of the study reported in this paper is a simulation tool to evaluate different parcel delivery strategies and customer movements based on real parcel delivery trip data and statistics about the parcel receiving habits. Secondly, the study uses the resulting data to compare the Time-Area requirements of home delivery and parcel lockers.


EPSRC Centre for Doctoral Training in Embedded Intelligence

Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council

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Ford Motor Company



  • Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering

Published in

2020 Forum on Integrated and Sustainable Transportation Systems (FISTS)


298 - 303


2020 Forum on Integrated and Sustainable Transportation Systems (FISTS)




  • AM (Accepted Manuscript)

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© 2020 IEEE. Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.

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Delft, Netherlands

Event dates

3rd November 2020 - 5th November 2020


Maren Schnieder. Deposit date: 26 April 2022

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