RDD2018.Johnson1.pdf (205.49 kB)
Download file

Determination of density and surface tension in ethanol and HFA 134a mixtures

Download (205.49 kB)
conference contribution
posted on 18.06.2018, 12:54 by R. Johnson, D.I. Lewis, Paul M. Young, Hendrik VersteegHendrik Versteeg, Graham Hargrave
Recent publications of a transient aerodynamic atomization model have highlighted saturated vapor pressure, density, viscosity and surface tension as key properties governing pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) droplet size1, 2, 3. Pharmaceutical pMDI formulations widely use mixtures of propellant and excipients, such as ethanol, but mixing rules for the aforementioned properties are not available in the literature. Hence, composition-dependent surface tension and density were experimentally determined for ethanol-HFA 134a mixtures. The expressions presented of density and surface tension are advantageous to understanding transient flows inside the actuator and atomization of pMDI formulations containing ethanol as a co-solvent 2.



  • Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering

Published in

Respiratory Drug Delivery 2018




467 - 472 (6)


Johnson R, Lewis DI, Young PM, Versteeg HK, Hargrave G: Determination of Density and Surface Tension in Ethanol and HFA 134a Mixtures. In Respiratory Drug Delivery 2018. Volume 2, Edited by Dalby RN, Peart J, Suman, J, Young PM, Traini D. DHI Publishing; River Grove, IL: 2018: 467-472.


NA (Not Applicable or Unknown)

Publisher statement

This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Publication date



Provided with permission from Respiratory Drug Delivery 2018, Virginia Commonwealth University and RDD Online.




Tucson, Arizona, USA