Loughborough University
Amoah-2498.pdf (468.65 kB)

Effect of different income housing zones on effluent quality of Biofil toilet waste digesters in Accra, Ghana

Download (468.65 kB)
conference contribution
posted on 2018-02-12, 15:11 authored by Philip Amoah, Eric G. Nartey, Alyse Schrecongost
This study was carried out to assess the effect of different income-housing zones on the quality of effluent from standard Biofil® toilet waste digesters in Accra, Ghana. Records of the digesters installed were obtained from BiofilCom and were sorted out into income-housing zones (low, middle and high income housing zones). In all, 36 toilet digesters were found accessible and sampled 3 times each for effluent. Samples were analyzed for E. coli, Total coliform, helminth eggs, BOD, TSS, NH3-N and PO4-P, using standard methods. Results show that effluent quality exceeded the requirements set by Ghana EPA for discharge into water bodies. However, high removal efficiencies were obtained for BOD (84%) and TSS (82%). In most cases, the pollutant concentrations were significantly higher in effluents from the high-income zones than in the middle and low income zones.



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

Research Unit

  • Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC)

Published in

WEDC Conference


AMOAH, P. ... et al, 2016. Effect of different income housing zones on effluent quality of Biofil toilet waste digesters in Accra, Ghana. IN: Shaw, R.J. (ed). Ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: Proceedings of the 39th WEDC International Conference, Kumasi, Ghana, 11-15 July 2016, Refereed paper 2498, 7pp.


© WEDC, Loughborough University


  • VoR (Version of Record)

Publisher statement

This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Publication date



This is a conference paper.

Other identifier



  • en

Usage metrics

    WEDC 39th International Conference


    No categories selected