Maulit-J-A-1244.pdf (105.55 kB)
Download file

Effects of program and institutional design on district-level CLTS management in Malawi

Download (105.55 kB)
conference contribution
posted on 12.02.2018, 15:08 authored by Jolly A. Maulit, Mike Kang
Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is a participatory method for sanitation promotion that is quickly becoming the primary approach used by developing countries to generate improvements in sanitation behaviour, resulting in open defecation free (ODF) communities. Since 2009, Engineers Without Borders Canada has worked in Malawi to provide technical assistance on CLTS to 12 districts. EWB has gathered evidence that the management behaviour of the district is a key indicator of whether CLTS implementation will achieve ODF sustainability in Malawi. Program designers such as national governments and major donors can encourage good management by creating incentives and systems for project implementation that encourage these behaviours in districts. Furthermore, program designers should recognize that a lack these incentives and systems discourages good management in districts, and that effective CLTS implementation cannot happen without good management behaviours.



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

Research Unit

  • Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC)

Published in

WEDC Conference


MAULIT, J.A. and KANG, M., 2011. Effects of program and institutional design on district-level CLTS management in Malawi. IN: Shaw, R.J. (ed). The future of water, sanitation and hygiene in low-income countries - Innovation, adaptation and engagement in a changing world: Proceedings of the 35th WEDC International Conference, Loughborough, UK, 6-8 July 2011, 4p.p.


© WEDC, Loughborough University


VoR (Version of Record)

Publisher statement

This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at:

Publication date



This is a conference paper.

Other identifier




Usage metrics