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Finding hidden knowledge in WASH: effective methods for exploring the needs of perimenopausal women in Ghana

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conference contribution
posted on 2016-08-31, 11:10 authored by Amita Bhakta, G. Annan, Yvonne Y. Esseku, Harold Esseku, Julie Fisher, B. Lartey, Brian Reed
As increased urbanisation brings the challenges of providing sustainable and equitable WASH provision for all, a globally ageing population will bring more women in low income countries passing through the perimenopause, the transition to menopause , with various hidden WASH needs. A lack of knowledge upon these needs also means that effective methods to work with perimenopausal women are not well established. Drawing on field experiences from Accra and Kumasi in Ghana, this paper reflects upon the methodological lessons learned in researching the WASH needs of perimenopausal women in two low income communities. An effective methodology to explore perimenopausal women’s WASH needs encourages participation and engagement with the topic through use of appropriate tools , and effective community mobilisation. A collaboration of different people in a team, group reflection and adaptation of tools which consider practical aspects and local cultural values are needed to understand such needs.



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

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  • Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC)

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39th WEDC International Conference WEDC Conference


BHAKTA, A. ...et al., 2016. Finding hidden knowledge in WASH: effective methods for exploring the needs of perimenopausal women in Ghana. IN: Shaw, R.J. (ed). Ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: Proceedings of the 39th WEDC International Conference, Kumasi, Ghana, 11-15 July 2016.


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Kumasi, Ghana

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