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Graphic standards in graphic heritage: Scope, scale, and unity through multiplicity in Islamic design

conference contribution
posted on 2023-09-12, 13:14 authored by Robert G. HarlandRobert G. Harland

The concept of graphic standards is well-known across several disciplines. In design, it is most substantively understood in architecture, but its American origins present a limited aesthetic scope that favours classical architectural norms that overlook non-Western architectural traditions. This paper explores their relevance concerning urban heritage and the emerging concept of graphic heritage and explores how the concept may be used to understand the value of repetition and frequency in Islamic art, architecture, and design. The research follows an exploratory hypothesis that seeks to describe and redefine some related concepts that will benefit a cross-disciplinary appreciation of cultural heritage and the underpinning role of graphic standards across an expanded multicultural context from which they emerged in the early twentieth century. Several disciplinary perspectives inform the study, from architectural heritage expression, urban heritage, architectural graphic standards, classical architectural elements, Islamic motifs, geometry, and graphic design. These shape the discussion to substantiate and expand the semantic link between the graphic in graphic standards and graphic heritage for the future benefit of design research and heritage theory and practice. 



  • Design and Creative Arts


  • Creative Arts


International Association of Societies of Design Research Congress 2023 (IASDR 2023)


Design Research Society


  • AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Acceptance date



  • en


Milan, Italy

Event dates

9th October 2023 - 13th October 2023


Dr Robert Harland. Deposit date: 7 September 2023

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