Agbefu-2554.pdf (555.04 kB)
Download file

Groundwater quality in a low income community: case study of Kotei, Kumasi

Download (555.04 kB)
conference contribution
posted on 12.02.2018, 15:11 by Bernadette D. Agbefu, Vivien Chikogu-Ameso, Sampson Oduro-Kwarteng
The quality of groundwater, is low in low income peri–urban communities where onsite sanitation facilities and ground water resources are barely apart. This paper assesses the influence on-site sanitation facilities have on groundwater quality by determining the level and source of contamination and identifying the associated pathways to contamination at various levels of storage. Groundwater samples from randomly selected sources with different storage levels were analysed for physio-chemical parameters, microbial contamination levels and the presence of heavy metals. The risk to contamination of selected sources was conducted using a questionnaire developed by Howard et al. The results indicate that, groundwater quality deteriorates from source to storage with counts of microbes increasing. However, as microbial contamination level increases, risk to contamination levels decreases for primary and secondary storage. This suggests that, contamination at primary and secondary storage levels is not directly from on-site sanitation systems but from other identified factors.



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

Research Unit

  • Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC)

Published in

WEDC Conference


AGBEFU, B.D. ... et al, 2016. Groundwater quality in a low income community: case study of Kotei, Kumasi. IN: Shaw, R.J. (ed). Ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: Proceedings of the 39th WEDC International Conference, Kumasi, Ghana, 11-15 July 2016, Refereed paper 2554, 7pp.


© WEDC, Loughborough University


VoR (Version of Record)

Publisher statement

This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at:

Publication date



This is a conference paper.

Other identifier




Usage metrics