Human Assembly Skill Capture A Hidden Markov Model Analysis of Force and Torque Data in Peg-in-Hole Assembly _12_04.pdf (724.24 kB)
Download file

Human skill capture: A hidden Markov model of force and torque data in peg-in-a-hole assembly process

Download (724.24 kB)
conference contribution
posted on 08.11.2016, 11:08 by Yuchen Zhao, Ali Al-Yacoub, Yee GohYee Goh, Laura JusthamLaura Justham, Niels LohseNiels Lohse, Michael Jackson
A new model has been constructed to generalise the force and torque information during a manual peg-in-a-hole (PiH) assembly process. The paper uses Hidden Markov Model analysis to interpret the state topology (transition probability) and observations (force/torque signal) in the manipulation task. The task can be recognised as several discrete states that reflect the intrinsic nature of the process. Since the whole manipulation process happens so fast, even the operator themselves cannot articulate the exact states. Those are tacit skills which are difficult to extract using human factors methodologies. In order to programme a robot to complete tasks at skill level, numerical representation of the sub-goals are necessary. Therefore, those recognised ‘hidden’ states become valuable when a detail explanation of the task is needed and when a robot controller needs to change its behaviour in different states. The Gaussian Mixture model (GMM) is used as the initial guess of observations distribution. Then a Hidden Markov Model is used to encode the state (sub-goal) topology and observation density associated with those sub-goals. The Viterbi algorithm is then applied for the model-based analysis of the force and torque signal and the classification into sub-goals. The Baum-Welch algorithm is used for training and to estimate the most likely model parameters. In addition to generic states recognition, the proposed method also enhances our understanding of the skill based performances in manual tasks.



  • Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering

Published in

SMC 2016 - IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics


ZHAO, Y. al., 2016. Human skill capture: A hidden Markov model of force and torque data in peg-in-a-hole assembly process. Presented at the IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics (SMC 2016), Budapest, Hungary, October 9-12th, pp.000655 - 000660.


AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Acceptance date


Publication date



Personal use of this material is permitted. Permission from IEEE must be obtained for all other uses, in any current or future media, including reprinting/republishing this material for advertising or promotional purposes, creating new collective works, for resale or redistribution to servers or lists, or reuse of any copyrighted component of this work in other works.






Budapest, Hungary

Usage metrics