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Intra-household access to WASH in Uganda and Zambia: do variations exist?

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conference contribution
posted on 12.02.2018, 15:11 by Lisa Danquah, Jane Wilbur
This paper explores intra-household variations in access to WASH through analysis of baseline data from the Undoing Inequity project in Zambia and Uganda. The purpose of which is to explore whether differences exist between head of household and ‘vulnerable’ individuals (disabled, older or chronically ill persons) reports on access and use of WASH at the household level. The results indicate that water indicators reported by the household head e.g. use of the same water source, showed high levels of agreement between the head of household and the ‘vulnerable’ individual. On the contrary, indicators on access to sanitation facilities and consumption of drinking water showed divergence. Indicators on hygiene were found to show poor levels of agreement. These results indicate that there is a specific need to ask particular questions to vulnerable and marginalised individuals themselves in national WASH surveys in order to obtain accurate information to monitor intra-household inequalities.



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

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  • Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC)

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DANQUAH, L. and WILBUR, J., 2016. Intra-household access to WASH in Uganda and Zambia: do variations exist? IN: Shaw, R.J. (ed). Ensuring availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all: Proceedings of the 39th WEDC International Conference, Kumasi, Ghana, 11-15 July 2016, Refereed paper 2467, 6pp.


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This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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