Loughborough University
kankhulungo.pdf (116.82 kB)

Minimizing costs in a drought situation - Malawi

Download (116.82 kB)
conference contribution
posted on 2018-02-12, 15:08 authored by Owen M. Banda Kankhulungo
The current drought experiences of Southern Africa including Malawi has shown that the failure of the existing water supply systems to meet demands when water resources are receding can be reasonably described in terms of the clear and definite monetary expenditures and economic losses related to the emergency actions. Malawi through Ministry of Works' Water Department operates over 53 urban and semi-urban water schemes and 56 rural piped water schemes. It is known that frameworks have previously been presented which can allow Water Depart­ment's designers of the stated range of water systems and the utility management to formulate least cost drought emergency plans, and to systematically examine the trade­off between the expected value of the long-term cost of coping with water deficits and the cost of the long-term water supply/conservation projects. This paper examines the suitability of such framework which has been used once in some places as an analytical tool for deficit planning. The analysis of that scheme in Spring Field, Illinois had indicated that the optional short-term programs for the mitigation of potential shortages of water during droughts consist of a combination of moderate demand and loss reduction measures coupled with intensive utilization of emergency water supply systems. To this it is therefore important to note that the choice of demand reduction measures should involve a certain degree of discrimination among various consumer categories in order to avoid substantial losses to the local economy.



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

Research Unit

  • Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC)

Published in

WEDC Conference


KANKHULUNGO, O.M.B., 1993. Minimizing costs in a drought situation - Malawi. IN: Pickford, J. et al. (eds). Water, sanitation, environment and development: Proceedings of the 19th WEDC International Conference, Accra, Ghana, 6-10 September 1993, pp.177-179.


© WEDC, Loughborough University


  • VoR (Version of Record)

Publisher statement

This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Publication date



This is a conference paper.

Other identifier



  • en

Usage metrics

    WEDC 19th International Conference


    No categories selected



    Ref. manager