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Operational safety of urine diversion toilets in Durban, South Africa

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conference contribution
posted on 2018-02-12, 15:08 authored by L.M. Austin
There are approximately 50 000 urine diversion (UD) toilets in South Africa. Emptying the vaults implies that the faecal material must be handled, usually with spades or rakes. Should the material be used for agricultural purposes then further handling must of necessity take place. There are currently no guidelines in the country on the safety aspects of handling faecal material from UD toilet vaults, particularly regarding the storage period required for achieving satisfactory pathogen die-off. This paper describes a research project carried out in Durban with the aim of establishing a recommended vault storage period for the material. The research concluded that the toilet vaults should be sized for a minimum storage period of 12 months after last use.



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

Research Unit

  • Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC)

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WEDC Conference


AUSTIN, L.M., 2006. Operational safety of urine diversion toilets in Durban, South Africa. IN: Fisher, J. (ed). Sustainable development of water resources, water supply and environmental sanitation: Proceedings of the 32nd WEDC International Conference, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 13-17 November 2006, pp. 91-98.


© WEDC, Loughborough University


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This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

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