Loughborough University
AhmadM.pdf (45.92 kB)
Download file

School sanitation - UNICEF's experiences in Pakistan

Download (45.92 kB)
conference contribution
posted on 2018-02-12, 15:07 authored by Masroor Ahmad, Murtaza Malik, Birindra Shrestha
Balochistan, which constitutes 44 percent of Pakistan’s area and 5 percent of its population, is the least developed province of Pakistan. Compared with national average literacy rates of 32.6 percent for females and 56.5 percent for males (1998 estimates), it has an average literacy rate of 15 percent and 36.5 percent for females and males, respectively. The female literacy rate in rural areas however is 2 percent. The infant and under-5 mortality rates of 190 and 235 live births (LB) per 1000 in the province are also considerably higher than the corresponding national average values of 101 and 140 per 1000, respectively. In order to “contribute to child survival, protection and development” by provision of adequate water and sanitation facilities in girls primary schools and imparting health and hygiene education, the Government of Balochistan launched the UNICEF’s assisted Primary Environmental Care in Girls Primary School (PECGPS) Project in selected areas of the province in 1998. Considering the fact that lack of drinking water and sanitation facilities is one of the main reasons for low enrollment and high drop out rates in the girls primary schools in Balochistan, it was also envisaged that the project would result in an increased female literacy rate through decreased primary school drop out. This paper summarizes the experiences of the work carried out in two divisions i.e. Kalat and Zhob up to December 2000.



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

Research Unit

  • Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC)

Published in

WEDC Conference


AHMAD, M. ... et al, 2001. School sanitation - UNICEF's experiences in Pakistan. IN: Scott, R. (ed). People and systems for water, sanitation and health: Proceedings of the 27th WEDC International Conference, Lusaka, Zambia, 20-24 August 2001, pp. 163-165.


© WEDC, Loughborough University


  • VoR (Version of Record)

Publisher statement

This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Publication date



This is a conference paper.

Other identifier



  • en

Usage metrics


    No categories selected