Loughborough University
Uddin-2110.pdf (470.39 kB)

Traditional closed-loop sanitation systems in peri-urban and rural Afghanistan: a SWOT analysis

Download (470.39 kB)
conference contribution
posted on 2018-02-12, 15:10 authored by Sayed M. Uddin, Federico Soranzo, N. Noori, E. Noori, S. Nasrullah, Jean Lapegue, R. Momand
The closed-loop-sanitation-system (CLSS), or sustainable sanitation system, has accelerated in recent years and been successfully implemented in many parts of the world. This study explored the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) of the traditional CLSS (T-CLSS) in both peri-urban and rural contexts within three different provinces in Afghanistan, the first study of its kind in this country. Participatory research tools such as transect walks, focus group discussions, and interactive workshops have been applied to assess the SWOT components of T- CLSS. The results show that T-CLSS is practiced historically in both peri-urban and rural areas by different generations using local and traditional knowledge, skills and technologies. Socio-cultural acceptance of the system is considered as one of the strengths in both rural and peri-urban areas. It is highly recommended that the feasibility of improved CLSS be assessed and implemented in the light of the T-CLSS system.



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

Research Unit

  • Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC)

Published in

WEDC Conference


UDDIN, S.M. ... et al, 2015. Traditional closed-loop sanitation systems in peri-urban and rural Afghanistan: a SWOT analysis. IN: Shaw, R.J. (ed). Water, sanitation and hygiene services beyond 2015 - Improving access and sustainability: Proceedings of the 38th WEDC International Conference, Loughborough, UK, 27-31 July 2015, 7pp.


© WEDC, Loughborough University


  • VoR (Version of Record)

Publisher statement

This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Publication date



This is a conference paper.

Other identifier



  • en

Usage metrics

    WEDC 38th International Conference


    No categories selected