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User perspectives to direct water reuse from the Nano Membrane toilet

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conference contribution
posted on 2018-02-12, 15:10 authored by P.H. Cruddas, Alison Parker, A. Gormley
The Nano Membrane toilet is a response to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation ‘Re-invent the Toilet Challenge’. The Nano Membrane toilet has many design aspects that will involve interaction by the end-user, including water reuse from the membrane treatment system which produces treated water directly available to the user at household level. In order to maintain a user focused design development, a survey was carried out on potential end users in Kumasi, Ghana, in order to understand their attitudes to direct reuse of water from the toilet, and how the attitudes may be affected by aesthetic changes to the water. It was found that end users would be willing to use the product water for a wide range of household purposes, with cleaning being the most likely. Odour was found to have the greatest effect over taste and colour on user’s willingness for all potential purposes, including drinking, cooking, and teeth cleaning.



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

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  • Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC)

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CRUDDAS, P.H. ... et al, 2015. User perspectives to direct water reuse from the Nano Membrane toilet. IN: Shaw, R.J. (ed). Water, sanitation and hygiene services beyond 2015 - Improving access and sustainability: Proceedings of the 38th WEDC International Conference, Loughborough, UK, 27-31 July 2015, 6pp.


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