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WASH, violence and health: a quantitative analysis

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conference contribution
posted on 12.02.2018, 15:11 by Reshma Dixit
In India out of the 246,692,667 households there are 53.1% having no latrines. Similarly in the urban areas out of 78,865,937 there are 18.6% without latrines. Two thirds of Indian homes are devoid of a drinking water facility from a treated tap source. Inadequate water and sanitation impacts women as they face challenges and are widely exposed to vulnerable situation posing a threat to their dignity and safety. To understand the challenges in accessing water and sanitation provisions a PhD study was conducted in the urban slums of Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh. The findings indicate that 89.5% respondents did not feel safe defecating in the open. 96% women and 40% men controlled the urge to defecate. A key finding of the study was that 68% of the women had experienced violence in some or the other form.



  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

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  • Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC)

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WEDC Conference


DIXIT, R., 2017. WASH, violence and health: a quantitative analysis. IN: Shaw, R.J. (ed). Local action with international cooperation to improve and sustain water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) services: Proceedings of the 40th WEDC International Conference, Loughborough, UK, 24-28 July 2017, Paper 2738, 4pp.


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