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Supplementary information files for Highly active and magnetically recoverable heterogeneous catalyst for hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass into high quality bio-oil

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posted on 2023-07-12, 10:48 authored by Swathi Mukundan, Jin Xuan, Sandra E. Dann, Jonathan WagnerJonathan Wagner

Supplementary files for article Highly active and magnetically recoverable heterogeneous catalyst for hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass into high quality bio-oil 

This article reports a safe, low-cost, and industrially applicable magnetite supported on activated carbon catalyst that can be magnetically retrieved from the solid and reused multiple times without the need of a regeneration step. The FeOx/C catalyst improved the bio-oil yield by 19.7 ± 0.96 % when compared to the uncatalysed reaction at 320 °C for the HTL of draff (brewer’s spent grains). The use of homogeneous Na2CO3 base as a catalyst and co-catalyst, improved carbon extraction into the aqueous phase. The exceptional catalytic activity can be attributed to the Fe3O4 phase which can produce in-situ H2 that improves the biomass decomposition and oil property with an energy recovery of ∼84 %. The FeOx/C catalyst was separated using magnetic retrieval and maintained its catalytic activity even up to 5 reaction cycles showing potential as a cheap catalyst for HTL reactions and can be scaled-up for industrial applications.  

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UKRI Interdisciplinary Centre for Circular Chemical Economy

UK Research and Innovation

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  • Aeronautical, Automotive, Chemical and Materials Engineering

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  • Chemical Engineering

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