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Acute effects of exercise on appetite, ad libitum energy intake and appetite-regulatory hormones in lean and overweight/obese men and women

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posted on 03.08.2017 by Jessica A. Douglas, James King, David Clayton, Andrew Jackson, Jack Sargeant, Alice Thackray, Melanie J. Davies, David Stensel
BACKGROUND: Acute exercise does not elicit compensatory changes in appetite parameters in lean individuals; however, less is known about responses in overweight individuals. This study compared the acute effects of moderate-intensity exercise on appetite, energy intake and appetite-regulatory hormones in lean and overweight/obese individuals. METHODS: Forty-seven healthy lean (n=22, 11 females; mean(s.d.) 37.5(15.2) years; 22.4(1.5) kg·m−2) and overweight/obese (n=25, 11 females; 45.0(12.4) years, 29.2(2.9) kg·m−2) individuals completed two, 8-h trials (exercise and control). In the exercise trial, participants completed 60 min treadmill exercise (59(4)% peak oxygen uptake) at 0–1 h and rested thereafter whilst participants rested throughout the control trial. Appetite ratings and concentrations of acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured at pre-determined intervals. Standardised meals were consumed at 1.5 and 4 h and an ad libitum buffet meal was provided at 7 h. RESULTS: Exercise suppressed appetite (95% CI −3.1 to −0.5 mm, P=0.01), and elevated delta PYY (95% CI 10 to 17 pg·ml−1, P<0.001) and GLP-1 (95% CI 7 to 10 pmol·l−1, P<0.001) concentrations. Delta acylated ghrelin concentrations (95% CI −4.6 to 3.4 pg·ml−1, P=0.76) and ad libitum energy intake (95% CI −391 to 346 kJ, P=0.90) were similar between trials. Subjective and hormonal appetite parameters and ad libitum energy intake were similar between lean and overweight/obese individuals (Pgreater than or equal to0.27). The exercise-induced elevation in delta GLP-1 was greater in overweight/obese individuals (trial-by-group interaction P=0.01), whereas lean individuals exhibited a greater exercise-induced increase in delta PYY (trial-by-group interaction P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Acute moderate-intensity exercise transiently suppressed appetite and increased PYY and GLP-1 in the hours after exercise without stimulating compensatory changes in appetite in lean or overweight/obese individuals. These findings underscore the ability of exercise to induce a short-term energy deficit without any compensatory effects on appetite regardless of weight status.

Funding

The research was supported by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Leicester Biomedical Research Centre.

History

School

  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

Published in

International Journal of Obesity

Citation

DOUGLAS, J.A. ... et al, 2017. Acute effects of exercise on appetite, ad libitum energy intake and appetite-regulatory hormones in lean and overweight/obese men and women. International Journal of Obesity, 41(12), pp.1737-1744.

Publisher

© The Authors. Published by Nature Publishing Group

Version

NA (Not Applicable or Unknown)

Publisher statement

This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Acceptance date

17/07/2017

Publication date

2017-08-03

Notes

This is an Open Access Article. It is published by Nature Publishing Group under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND). Full details of this licence are available at: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

ISSN

0307-0565

eISSN

1476-5497

Language

en

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