Development of Novel Synthetic Muscle Tissues for Sports Impact Surrogates_accepted_manuscript.pdf (537 kB)

Development of novel synthetic muscle tissues for sports impact surrogates

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journal contribution
posted on 13.01.2015 by Tom Payne, Sean Mitchell, Richard Bibb, Mark Waters
Impact injuries are commonplace in sport and often lead to performance detriment and debilitation. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is prescribed as a mandatory requirement in most sports where these impacts are likely to occur, though the methods of governance and evaluation criteria often do not accurately represent sports specific injury scenarios. One of the key shortcomings of such safety test standards is the human surrogate to which the PPE is affixed; this typically embodies unrepresentative geometries, masses, stiffness and levels of constraint when compared to humans.A key aspect of any human surrogate element is the simulant material used. Most previous sports specific surrogates tend to use off-the-shelf silicone blends to represent all the soft tissue structures within the human limb segment or organ; this approach potentially neglects important human response phenomena caused by the different tissue structures.This study presents an investigation into the use of bespoke additive cure Polydimethysiloxane (PDMS) silicone blends to match the reported mechanical properties of human relaxed and contracted skeletal muscle tissues. The silicone simulants have been tested in uniaxial compression through a range of strain rates and fit with a range of constitutive hyperelastic models (Mooney Rivlin, Ogden and Neo Hookean) and a viscoelastic Prony series.



  • Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering

Published in

Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials




357 - 374


PAYNE, T. ... et al, 2015. Development of novel synthetic muscle tissues for sports impact surrogates. Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 41, pp.357-374.


© Elsevier Ltd


AM (Accepted Manuscript)

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This is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published at: