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Evidence for alternative exhaled elimination profiles of disinfection by-products and potential markers of airway responses to swimming in a chlorinated pool environment

journal contribution
posted on 06.12.2019 by Liam Heaney, Shuo Kang, Matthew Turner, Martin Lindley, Paul Thomas
Chlorine‐based disinfectants protect pool water from pathogen contamination but produce potentially harmful halogenated disinfection by‐products (DBPs). This study characterized the bioaccumulation and elimination of exhaled DBPs post‐swimming and investigated changes in exhaled breath profiles associated with chlorinated pool exposure. Nineteen participants provided alveolar‐enriched breath samples prior to and 5, 90, 300, 510 and 600 min post‐swimming. Known DBPs associated with chlorinated water were quantitated by thermal desorption‐gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry. Two distinct exhaled DBP elimination profiles were observed. Most participants (84%) reported peak concentrations immediately post‐swimming that reduced exponentially. A sub‐group exhibited a previously unobserved and delayed washout profile with peak levels at 90 min post‐exposure. Metabolomic investigations tentatively identified two candidate biomarkers associated with swimming pool exposure, demonstrating an upregulation in the hours after exposure. These data demonstrated a hitherto undescribed exhaled DBP elimination profile in a small number of participants which contrasts previous findings of uniform accumulation and exponential elimination. This sub‐group which exhibited delayed peak‐exhaled concentrations suggests the uptake, processing and immediate elimination of DBPs is not ubiquitous across individuals as previously understood. Additionally, nontargeted metabolomics highlighted extended build‐up of compounds tentatively associated to swimming in a chlorinated pool environment that may indicate airway responses to DBP exposure.

History

School

  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences
  • Science

Department

  • Chemistry

Published in

Indoor Air: international journal of indoor air quality and climate

Volume

30

Issue

2

Pages

284 - 293

Publisher

Wiley

Version

AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Rights holder

© John Wiley & Sons A/S

Publisher statement

This is the peer reviewed version of the following article: HEANEY, L. … et al, 2019. Evidence for alternative exhaled elimination profiles of disinfection by-products and potential markers of airway responses to swimming in a chlorinated pool environment. Indoor Air, 30 (2), pp.284-293, which has been published in final form at https://doi.org/10.1111/ina.12630. This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Use of Self-Archived Versions.

Acceptance date

05/12/2019

Publication date

2019-12-08

Copyright date

2019

ISSN

0905-6947

eISSN

1600-0668

Language

en

Depositor

Dr Liam Heaney Deposit date: 5 December 2019

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