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Exploring the contribution of activity sports tourism to same-day visit expenditure and duration
Drawing upon a unique large-scale data source (n=5,004) and motivated by the time allocation model of consumer demand in economics, this paper critically analyses the relationship between the expenditure from, and duration of, same-day visits that comprise a large component of the domestic tourism market in England. It focusses on the contribution of activity sports tourism as a component of same-day visits. Three-stage least squares (3SLS) instrumental variable estimation is employed to account for the simultaneous determination of duration and expenditure as implied by economic theory. Controlling for socio-economic characteristics and general trip behaviours, the research identifies that although total expenditures and trip durations are positively related, there are trade-offs between these when focussing on the direct effects of the activities undertaken. However, accounting for the interrelationship between the duration of visits and the expenditures on them, it is found that walking reduces the expenditures on trips and their duration. Field sports increase them both. No effects are identified for running and cycling, as land-based activity sports tourism, or swimming and water sports, as water-based activity sports tourism. The key drivers of expenditure, which also increase the duration of trips, are visiting attractions and hospitality. The research provides a theoretically informed and empirically robust foundation for a more nuanced and targeted activity sports tourism strategy, which might have implications for how activity sports tourism may contribute to health and well-being and local economic development to better inform tourism planning and policy.
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- Business and Economics
- Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences