Svendsen_et_al.,_2016.pdf (659.17 kB)

Impact of intensified training and carbohydrate supplementation on immunity and markers of overreaching in highly trained cyclists

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posted on 15.04.2016, 15:48 by Ida Svendsen, Sophie C. Killer, James Carter, Rebecca K. Randell, A.E. Jeukendrup, Michael Gleeson
PURPOSE. To determine effects of intensified training (IT) and carbohydrate supplementation on overreaching and immunity. METHODS. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, 13 male cyclists (age 25 ± 6 years, (Formula presented.) 72 ± 5 ml/kg/min) completed two 8-day periods of IT. On one occasion, participants ingested 2 % carbohydrate (L-CHO) beverages before, during and after training sessions. On the second occasion, 6 % carbohydrate (H-CHO) solutions were ingested before, during and after training, with the addition of 20 g of protein in the post-exercise beverage. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after incremental exercise to fatigue on days 1 and 9. RESULTS. In both trials, IT resulted in decreased peak power (375 ± 37 vs. 391 ± 37 W, P < 0.001), maximal heart rate (179 ± 8 vs. 190 ± 10 bpm, P < 0.001) and haematocrit (39 ± 2 vs. 42 ± 2 %, P < 0.001), and increased plasma volume (P < 0.001). Resting plasma cortisol increased while plasma ACTH decreased following IT (P < 0.05), with no between-trial differences. Following IT, antigen-stimulated whole blood culture production of IL-1α was higher in L-CHO than H-CHO (0.70 (95 % CI 0.52–0.95) pg/ml versus 0.33 (0.24–0.45) pg/ml, P < 0.01), as was production of IL-1β (9.3 (95 % CI 7–10.4) pg/ml versus 6.0 (5.0–7.8) pg/ml, P < 0.05). Circulating total leukocytes (P < 0.05) and neutrophils (P < 0.01) at rest increased following IT, as did neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio and percentage CD4+ lymphocytes (P < 0.05), with no between-trial differences. CONCLUSION. IT resulted in symptoms consistent with overreaching, although immunological changes were modest. Higher carbohydrate intake was not able to alleviate physiological/immunological disturbances.

History

School

  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

Published in

European Journal of Applied Physiology

Volume

116

Issue

5

Pages

867–877

Citation

SVENDSEN, I. ... et al., 2016. Impact of intensified training and carbohydrate supplementation on immunity and markers of overreaching in highly trained cyclists. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 116(5), pp. 867–877.

Publisher

Springer (© the authors)

Version

VoR (Version of Record)

Publisher statement

This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/ by/4.0/

Acceptance date

09/02/2016

Publication date

2016-02-23

Copyright date

2016

ISSN

1439-6319

eISSN

1439-6327

Language

en

Licence

Exports

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Exports