2019 Jaeger et al ISSN Position Stand Probiotics (JISSN).pdf (2.4 MB)
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International Society of Sports Nutrition Position Stand: Probiotics

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posted on 26.05.2020 by R Jäger, AE Mohr, KC Carpenter, CM Kerksick, M Purpura, A Moussa, JR Townsend, M Lamprecht, NP West, K Black, Michael Gleeson, DB Pyne, SD Wells, SM Arent, AE Smith-Ryan, RB Kreider, BI Campbell, L Bannock, J Scheiman, CJ Wissent, M Pane, DS Kalman, JN Pugh, JA Ter Haar, J Antonio
© 2019 The Author(s). Position statement: The International Society of Sports Nutrition (ISSN) provides an objective and critical review of the mechanisms and use of probiotic supplementation to optimize the health, performance, and recovery of athletes. Based on the current available literature, the conclusions of the ISSN are as follows: 1) Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host (FAO/WHO). 2) Probiotic administration has been linked to a multitude of health benefits, with gut and immune health being the most researched applications. 3) Despite the existence of shared, core mechanisms for probiotic function, health benefits of probiotics are strain- and dose-dependent. 4) Athletes have varying gut microbiota compositions that appear to reflect the activity level of the host in comparison to sedentary people, with the differences linked primarily to the volume of exercise and amount of protein consumption. Whether differences in gut microbiota composition affect probiotic efficacy is unknown. 5) The main function of the gut is to digest food and absorb nutrients. In athletic populations, certain probiotics strains can increase absorption of key nutrients such as amino acids from protein, and affect the pharmacology and physiological properties of multiple food components. 6) Immune depression in athletes worsens with excessive training load, psychological stress, disturbed sleep, and environmental extremes, all of which can contribute to an increased risk of respiratory tract infections. In certain situations, including exposure to crowds, foreign travel and poor hygiene at home, and training or competition venues, athletes' exposure to pathogens may be elevated leading to increased rates of infections. Approximately 70% of the immune system is located in the gut and probiotic supplementation has been shown to promote a healthy immune response. In an athletic population, specific probiotic strains can reduce the number of episodes, severity and duration of upper respiratory tract infections. 7) Intense, prolonged exercise, especially in the heat, has been shown to increase gut permeability which potentially can result in systemic toxemia. Specific probiotic strains can improve the integrity of the gut-barrier function in athletes. 8) Administration of selected anti-inflammatory probiotic strains have been linked to improved recovery from muscle-damaging exercise. 9) The minimal effective dose and method of administration (potency per serving, single vs. split dose, delivery form) of a specific probiotic strain depends on validation studies for this particular strain. Products that contain probiotics must include the genus, species, and strain of each live microorganism on its label as well as the total estimated quantity of each probiotic strain at the end of the product's shelf life, as measured by colony forming units (CFU) or live cells. 10) Preclinical and early human research has shown potential probiotic benefits relevant to an athletic population that include improved body composition and lean body mass, normalizing age-related declines in testosterone levels, reductions in cortisol levels indicating improved responses to a physical or mental stressor, reduction of exercise-induced lactate, and increased neurotransmitter synthesis, cognition and mood. However, these potential benefits require validation in more rigorous human studies and in an athletic population.

History

School

  • Sport, Exercise and Health Sciences

Published in

Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition

Volume

16

Issue

1

Pages

62

Publisher

BMC

Version

VoR (Version of Record)

Rights holder

© The authors

Publisher statement

This is an Open Access Article. It is published by BMC under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported Licence (CC BY). Full details of this licence are available at: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Acceptance date

04/12/2019

Publication date

2019-12-21

Copyright date

2019

eISSN

1550-2783

Language

en

Depositor

Prof Mike Gleeson Deposit date: 23 May 2020

Article number

ARTN 62

Licence

Exports