File(s) under permanent embargo

Reason: This item is currently closed access.

Microwave hydrothermal carbonization of human biowaste

journal contribution
posted on 30.01.2015 by Sola Afolabi, M. Sohail (Khan), Paul Thomas
The challenges of poor sanitation due to poor faecal sludge management, particularly in the developing and other remote regions of developed countries, are well documented. As a potential technological and complementary approach to managing human biowastes, microwave hydrothermal carbonization (M-HTC), a thermochemical process, was used in this study to convert human biowastes into a safe material without any foul odour. The process also recovered value-added products i.e. solid chars and liquid ammonia concentrate. Primary sewage and raw human faecal sludges were subjected to microwave heating at 160, 180 and 200 "C, at different residence times: 30, 60 and 120 min under autogenous pressure. As a result, up to 60 % energy densified chars were recovered from the raw biowastes. The calorific (higher heating) values of chars recovered after the process, particularly those from human faecal sludge, increased from 19.79 up to 25.01 MJ/kg. Also, up to 80 % ammonia was recovered in the liquid fraction of carbonized human biowastes. Solid char yield and other estimated physicochemical properties were observed to be dependent on both the reaction temperatures and residence times of the process. The results of this study show M-HTC is a potential value-added recovery process for managing human biowastes and further provides essential information useful for the design and optimization of a self-sustainable sanitation facility.

Funding

The authors wish to thank the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation for its funding to Loughborough University for this project.

History

School

  • Architecture, Building and Civil Engineering

Research Unit

  • Water, Engineering and Development Centre (WEDC)

Published in

Waste and Biomass Valorization

Volume

6

Issue

1

Pages

1 - 11

Citation

AFOLABI, O.O.D., SOHAIL, M. and THOMAS, C.L.P., 2015. Microwave hydrothermal carbonization of human biowaste. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 6(2), pp. 147-157.

Publisher

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

Version

VoR (Version of Record)

Publisher statement

This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/

Publication date

2015

Notes

This article is closed access.

ISSN

1877-265X

Language

en

Exports

Logo branding

Categories

Exports