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Pictorial representations of simple arithmetic problems are not always helpful: A cognitive load perspective

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posted on 08.01.2018 by Ernest C.D.M. van Lieshout, Iro Xenidou-Dervou
At the start of mathematics education children are often presented with addition and subtraction problems in the form of pictures. They are asked to solve the problems by filling in corresponding number sentences. One type of problem concerns the representation of an increase or a decrease in a depicted amount. A decrease is, however, more difficult to represent in paper pictorially than an increase. Within the Cognitive Load Theory framework, we expected that commonly used decrease problems would be harder and slower to solve than increase problems because of higher intrinsic cognitive load. We also hypothesized that combining the pictorial information with auditory information would reduce this load and, as a result, would lead to improved performance. We further expected that these effects would be most prominent in children who score below average on a general mathematics test. We conducted an experiment with sixty children attending the first grade of primary school, who were divided into a higher and lower mathematics-achieving group. As expected, children performed worse on the decrease problems compared to the increase problems. Also, the combination of pictorial and auditory information reduced the accuracy lag of the decrease problems compared to the increase problems. With response time this effect occurred only in the group of lower mathematics achieving children. These results are in line with the cognitive load theory framework, but we also offer an alternative explanation regarding attention.
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School

  • Science

Department

  • Mathematics Education Centre

Published in

Educational Studies in Mathematics

Citation

VAN LIESHOUT, E.C.D.M. and XENIDOU-DERVOU, I., 2018. Pictorial representations of simple arithmetic problems are not always helpful: A cognitive load perspective. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 98(1), pp. 39–55.

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Springer Verlag

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NA (Not Applicable or Unknown)

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This work is made available according to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-Attribution 4.0 Unported (CC BY 4.0) licence. Full details of this licence are available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Acceptance date

28/12/2017

Publication date

2018-02-04

Notes

This is an Open Access Article. It is published by Springer under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported Licence (CC BY). Full details of this licence are available at: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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0013-1954

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en

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