Raman spectroscopy study of the transformation of the carbonaceous skeleton of a polymer-based nanoporous carbon along the thermal annealing pathway
We report a multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy study of the structural changes along the thermal annealing pathway of a poly(furfuryl alcohol) (PFA) derived nanoporous carbon (NPC). The Raman spectra were deconvoluted utilizing G, D, D′, A and TPA bands. The appropriateness of these deconvolutions was confirmed via recovery of the correct dispersive behaviours of these bands. It is proposed that the ID/IG ratio is composed of two parts: one associated with the extent of graphitic crystallites (the Tuinstra–Koenig relationship), and a second related to the inter-defect distance. This model was used to successfully determine the variation of the in-plane size and intra-plane defect density along the annealing pathway. It is proposed that the NPC skeleton evolves along the annealing pathway in two stages: below 1600 °C it was dominated by a reduction of in-plane defects with a minor crystallite growth, and above this temperature growth of the crystallites accelerates as the in-plane defect density approaches zero. A significant amount of transpolyacetylene (TPA)-like structures was found to be remaining even at 2400 °C. These may be responsible for resistance to further graphitization of the PFA-based carbon at higher temperatures.
C.H. acknowledges a joint scholarship provided by China Scholarship Council (CSC) and the University of Adelaide. S.S. acknowledges the award of International Postgraduate Research Scholarship (IPRS) from the University of Adelaide. The support of the Australian Research Council’s Discovery Program (DP110101293) and Linkage Infrastructure, Equipment and Facilities Program (LE130100119) is also gratefully acknowledged.