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The worked example effect, the generation effect, and element interactivity

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journal contribution
posted on 01.04.2020 by Ouhao Chen, Slava Kalyuga, John Sweller
The worked example effect indicates that examples providing full guidance on how to solve a problem result in better test performance than a problem-solving condition with no guidance. The generation effect occurs when learners generating responses demonstrate better test performance than learners in a presentation condition that provides an answer. This contradiction may be resolved by the suggestion that the worked example effect occurs for complex, high-element interactivity materials that impose a heavy working memory load whereas the generation effect is applicable for low-element interactivity materials. Two experiments tested this hypothesis in the area of geometry instruction using students with different levels of prior knowledge in geometry. The results of Experiment 1 indicated a worked example effect obtained for materials high in element interactivity and a generation effect for materials low in element interactivity. As levels of expertise increased in Experiment 2, thus reducing effective complexity, this interaction was replaced by a generation effect for all materials. These results suggest that when students need to learn low-element interactivity material, learning will be enhanced if they generate rather than study responses but if students need to learn high-element interactivity material, study may be preferable to generating responses.

History

School

  • Science

Department

  • Mathematics Education Centre

Published in

Journal of Educational Psychology

Volume

107

Issue

3

Pages

689 - 704

Publisher

American Psychological Association (APA)

Version

AM (Accepted Manuscript)

Rights holder

© American Psychological Association

Publisher statement

©American Psychological Association, 2015. This paper is not the copy of record and may not exactly replicate the authoritative document published in the APA journal. Please do not copy or cite without author's permission. The final article is available, upon publication, at: https://doi.org/10.1037/edu0000018.

Publication date

2015-08-01

Copyright date

2015

ISSN

0022-0663

eISSN

1939-2176

Language

en

Depositor

Dr Ouhao Chen. Deposit date: 31 March 2020

Exports