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Undesirable difficulty effects in the learning of high-element interactivity materials

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posted on 31.03.2020 by Ouhao Chen, JC Castro-Alonso, F Paas, J Sweller
© 2018 Chen, Castro-Alonso, Paas and Sweller. According to the concept of desirable difficulties, introducing difficulties in learning may sacrifice short-term performance in order to benefit long-term retention of learning. We describe three types of desirable difficulty effects: testing, generation, and varied conditions of practice. The empirical literature indicates that desirable difficulty effects are not always obtained and we suggest that cognitive load theory may be used to explain many of these contradictory results. Many failures to obtain desirable difficulty effects may occur under conditions where working memory is already stressed due to the use of high element interactivity information. Under such conditions, the introduction of additional difficulties may be undesirable rather than desirable. Empirical evidence from diverse experiments is used to support this hypothesis.

Funding

Erasmus University Rotterdam Research Excellence Initiative 2013

PIA-CONICYT Basal Funds for Centers of Excellence Project FB0003

History

School

  • Science

Department

  • Mathematics Education Centre

Published in

Frontiers in Psychology

Volume

9

Issue

AUG

Pages

(7)

Publisher

Frontiers Media

Version

VoR (Version of Record)

Rights holder

© The authors

Publisher statement

This is an Open Access Article. It is published by Frontiers Media under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported Licence (CC BY). Full details of this licence are available at: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Acceptance date

27/07/2018

Publication date

2018-08-13

Copyright date

2018

ISSN

1664-1078

eISSN

1664-1078

Language

en

Depositor

Dr Ouhao Chen Deposit date: 31 March 2020

Article number

1483

Licence

Exports