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A basic probability assignment methodology for unsupervised wireless intrusion detection

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journal contribution
posted on 31.07.2018, 10:17 by Ibrahim Ghafir, Kostas Kyriakopoulos, Francisco J. Aparicio-Navarro, Sangarapillai Lambotharan, Basil AsSadhan, Hamad BinSalleeh
The broadcast nature of Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) has made them prone to several types of wireless injection attacks, such as Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) at the physical layer, deauthentication and rogue access point attacks. The implementation of novel Intrusion Detection Systems (IDSs) is fundamental to provide stronger protection against these wireless injection attacks. Because most attacks manifest themselves through different metrics, current IDSs should leverage a cross-layer approach to help towards improving the detection accuracy. The data fusion technique based on Dempster-Shafer (D-S) theory has been proven to be an efficient data fusion technique to implement the cross-layer metric approach. However, the dynamic generation of the Basic Probability Assignment (BPA) values used by D-S is still an open research problem. In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised methodology to dynamically generate the BPA values, based on both the Gaussian and exponential probability density functions (pdf), the categorical probability mass function (pmf), and the local reachability density (lrd). Then, D-S is used to fuse the BPA values to classify whether the Wi-Fi frame is normal (i.e. non-malicious) or malicious. The proposed methodology provides 100% True Positive Rate (TPR) and 4.23% False Positive Rate (FPR) for the MitM attack, and 100% TPR and 2.44% FPR for the deauthentication attack, which confirm the efficiency of the dynamic BPA generation methodology.


This work has been supported by the British Council UK-Gulf Institutional Link Grant and the Engineering and Physical Science Research Council (EPSRC) Grant number EP/R006385/1.



  • Mechanical, Electrical and Manufacturing Engineering

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IEEE Access


GHAFIR, I. al., 2018. A basic probability assignment methodology for unsupervised wireless intrusion detection. IEEE Access, 6, pp.40008-40023.


Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)


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